An interesting story about the mysterious existence and evolution of the largest black holes in the universe

Sunday, September 12, 2021

An ancient windmill-like galaxy appears in space in the middle of a star tower called the Dolphins the Dolphin and under the Pegasus the Flying Horse.

For billions of years, the galaxy 'UGC 11700' has been spinning in space like the petals of a flower petal, regardless of how many natural collisions and mergers have changed the shape of other galaxies. ۔

By the way, the windmill-shaped shape of the galaxy 'UGC 11700' looks very beautiful, but in the middle of it there is a giant object. In the center of this beautiful galaxy is a gigantic black hole, one of the most mysterious things in the universe.

Generally, black holes are four times larger than the Sun, but their giant relatives can be millions and billions of times larger.

Scientists believe that there is a giant black hole in the center of almost every large galaxy. However, no one still knows how they got there. The Galaxy UGC 11700 may be helpful in finding out.

Becky Smithhurst, a junior researcher working on giant black holes at the University of Oxford, says: But these beautiful galaxies will help us unravel the mystery of how these black holes spread and grow. "

It becomes extremely difficult to research something that is naturally so dense that even light cannot come out of it.

However, new techniques have been introduced to study the effects of these giant black holes on the objects around them, even the waves they create in the space-time fabric. Providing evidence.

How black holes come into being in the traditional way and how they grow in shape is no secret.

Falling stars, which have no fuel left to survive, explode into a supernova, and all their matter shrinks and accumulates in a small fraction. But because of this, they become so dense that even light cannot get out of their intense gravity.

The concept of black holes has existed for almost a century now and is known from the famous scientist Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity.

The general impression is that black holes swallow everything that gets in their way, except for being extremely dark. They are thought of in the universe as a vacuum cleaners whose nature is to swallow everything. As they swallow things, they grow in size, and as their size increases, so does their appetite.

You would think that it would not be a mystery again and that the giant temple black holes would be the oldest and most hungry.

However, in reality, black holes work against their giant-like reputation. They have a surprisingly low ability to swallow anything, even if they have a lot of stars around them. In fact, these dead stars grow so slowly in size that they cannot become giant temples just by swallowing other objects.

"Suppose stars formed 200 million years after the Big Bang turned into black holes," says Smithhurst. Even after their destruction, they had about 13 and a half billion years in which these black holes could be billions of times larger than the sun, but this time is too short to grow in size just by swallowing other things.

Surprisingly, when the universe was in its infancy, giant black holes still existed.

Some of the brightest things in the sky are actually quizzers. These are the oldest, supermassive black holes that have illuminated the center of extinct galaxies.

Some of these giant black holes have existed since the time the universe was only 670 million years old and the oldest galaxies were forming.

What is in the middle of a black hole is very difficult for astronomers to observe from afar. But giant black holes can be even brighter than a galaxy full of stars, and as they swallow up objects around them, they occasionally emit ultraviolet rays.

The boundaries of black holes are circular, called event horizons. For light, energy and matter, it is impossible for them to get out of this circle.

Here the veil of time and space shrinks and the laws under which our remaining universe operates all disappear.

However, a rotating black hole forces objects around its event horizon to rotate and also raises their temperature. This temperature rises to more than 10 million degrees Celsius, emitting very strong rays across the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

"Black holes are one of the most efficient engines in the universe," says Marta Voluntary, a researcher on black holes at the Astrophysics Institute in Paris. They convert matter into energy and in the meantime, they are 40% efficient. If you think for a moment that we burn anything, whether it's carbon or chemical energy or the stars themselves, it's all a tiny fraction of the energy generated by black holes. "

Scientists' interest in giant temple black holes is not just about efficient energy production. Their existence and evolution is linked to the evolution of galaxies, but also to the history and structure of our entire universe. By looking for answers to the questions about them, scientists can find out why the universe is as it is.

Emission of energy is one of the many ways in which black holes unravel their mysteries.

When black holes meet or collide with something less heavy than their own, such as a neutron star, the resulting rays are called gravitational waves. These waves travel at the speed of light in space and were first detected on Earth in 2015 by instruments.

Since then, waves caused by these collisions have been recorded at large observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatories (LIGO) in the United States and the Vergo Facility near Pisa in Italy.

But even though these observatories use instruments several kilometers long, they can only collect information about medium-sized black holes.

"So far, Ligo has only discovered the conjunction of stars 150 times larger than the Sun," says Nedine Newmeier, head of the Galactic Nuclear Research Group at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy. There is still little data on so-called "medium-sized black holes" that could be up to 10,000 times larger than the Sun. And these black holes are the starting point for very large black holes.

She says that medium-sized black holes may have formed in the early days of the universe due to collisions between large clouds of gas or collisions between stars.

In the crowded atmosphere of the young universe, these medium-sized black holes collided one after the other, while at the same time nearby material accumulated rapidly, creating the possibility of the creation of extremely large black holes. Happened

But there are still problems with the idea that medium-sized black holes could lead to very large black holes.

Where the universe was very small in its beginning, it was also very hot. Gas clouds will be exposed to radioactive rays. As a result, they will have enough energy to collide with each other and collapse.

And even in a very dense universe, the laws of physics set the rate at which a black hole can absorb matter.

Volunteers say that all the explanations and theories about large-scale black holes are somewhat lacking, which is why scientists have not yet reached a definitive answer.

She says: "The theories that we are talking about 'dynamic processes', that is, a black hole is caused by many stars instead of just one, are also possible, but then these steps must be in very specific circumstances. ۔ '

According to him, there are also theories about 'ancient black holes' which may have come into being before the stars came into being and are growing, but this is a completely unknown area. We do not yet have any observational evidence to test this principle.

She says she loves the physics of dynamic processes, but she says it is difficult for the theory to predict that an object could reach a volume 1,000 times larger than the Sun.

"When you talk about quizzes that reached billions of times the size of the sun when the universe was a billion years old, you will find that it is very difficult to do so."

She admits that the true story of the existence of giant black holes has not yet been revealed.

"The more we do, the more we know what's wrong with our previous information. There is still something fundamental that we have neglected. "

New types of observation devices have tried to bridge the gap in our understanding.

Vergo, Lygo, and other such observatories are providing more detailed information than ever before about the size, age, and location of black holes in the universe.

But using all this data, scientists will need even bigger instruments than existing ones to understand huge black holes.

In the next decade, NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) are to launch a laser interferometer space antenna (Lisa) into space, consisting of three satellites flying in a triangle.

The triangle will be 2.5 million kilometers long on each side and will act like Diego and Vergo, but its breadth will allow it to detect gravitational waves coming from extremely large black holes beyond the limits of current technology. Will help

There are already indications that waves from very large black holes are all around us.

In early 2021, astronomers noticed some slight discrepancies between the rays coming from the 45 small stars (pulsars) that regularly emit light rays.

The results are yet to be confirmed, but researchers say it could be due to gravitational waves created by the combination of very large black holes.

But there are more direct ways to look at black holes.

Event Horizons Telescope recently captured the first images of black holes that have unveiled these mysterious objects.

These images also provide information about their nature and their effect on the magnetism and gravity of their host galaxies.

Astrophysicists can now monitor the movement of stars orbiting black holes in the center of a galaxy and obtain information about these extremely large objects in the center.

Most of these observations use ground-based binoculars using a technology called 'adaptive optics'.

Scientists examine a bright star (or man-made laser beam) to find out how much Earth's atmosphere is affecting light from space.

Computers then make subtle changes to the structure of the telescope's lenses to correct images that are affected by the atmosphere.

As a result, there is a wealth of detailed images of galaxies billions of light-years away and information about the black holes at the center of these galaxies.

Newmeyer was one of the first scientists to study the centers of galaxies with the help of adaptive optics.

She says: 'I was amazed to see that you could sit on the ground and get much clearer images than the Hubble Space Telescope in space. I have measured the amount of matter in black holes. There is a very clear connection here. The more matter in a galaxy, the larger the black hole at its center. There is a reason why these bodies slowly grow in size. '

But despite this connection, there is no hard evidence as to whether supermassive galaxies give birth to black holes or whether black holes give rise to these galaxies.

The two are definitely connected, but the nature of the relationship is still a mystery.

Part of the explanation for this may be the collision between galaxies.

As far as we can see, some 20 trillion galaxies seem to be moving away from each other, but they still collide, causing two very large central black holes to merge and more. It is possible to grow up.

Some scientists believe that this is how huge black holes come into being.

When relatively small black holes collide, they emit large amounts of energy, but only for a fraction of a second.

The energy they emit during this time is so bright that it illuminates everything in the sky.

If we could see such an event as the collision of huge black holes, it would be one of the most devastating events ever seen in the sky.

But while scientists suspect that very large black holes collide, this may not be as common as we think because of a disturbing aspect of the nature of black holes.

Black holes, which are on the verge of colliding with each other, get faster and faster as they get closer to each other, but very large black holes come to a standstill after reaching a distance of 3.6 light years.

At this point, the speed of their rotation equalizes the gravitational pull between them, so that their union becomes so slow that it cannot be completed during the present age of the universe.

But even so, scientists believe that the combination of such black holes could lead to the need for new theories to solve this 'final parsec problem'.

Extra power or energy is needed to bring black holes orbiting each other closer.

There is no shortage of galaxies in the universe that is made up of each other. It also includes our own galaxy, the Milky Way galaxy, which suggests that it must.

When galaxies collide with each other, their stars, gas clouds, dark matter, and black holes meet, changing the shape of their original structure.

Even the slightest collision between them changes their structure, making it possible to detect them.

But this means that huge black holes in the center of galaxies like the UGC 11700 cannot be formed by collision. Their structure suggests that they have never collided with another galaxy.

"I choose the rarest galaxies that have been isolated all my life," says Becky Smithhurst. We believe that the black holes in the middle of them have never grown larger than any other. "

This means that they must have been born in a different way.

Smithhurst goes back in time and tries to see how these black holes will initially be able to grow to their current size.

Their best models suggest that black holes that formed at the beginning of the universe and are a thousand to a million times larger than the Sun may be larger than any other black hole. Can help.

But these figures do not match Neumeier's theory of medium-sized black holes. Black holes of this size could not exist due to the death of stars.

Astrophysicists are also considering the possibility that extremely large black holes do not originate directly from dark matter. Dark matter is the mysterious substance that holds galaxies together.

But this dark meter is not visible in light and other rays of the electromagnetic spectrum and our understanding of it is still insufficient. When we combine the mysteries of black holes and dark matter, physics becomes even more challenging.

"There's still a lot we don't know," says Becky Smithhurst. I don't think it's right to say that black holes come into being only through supernovae, because we still don't know for sure. Maybe the reason is completely different and we haven't thought about it yet. I look forward to the time when the universe will surprise us with its answer. I think it will be a good day for science. "

Work is also underway on more advanced observation devices. NASA plans to launch the James Webb Space Telescope this fall (however, it is currently in the process of renaming the telescope as former NASA director James Webb implemented anti-gay policies. .)

The unparalleled size of this telescope and the capabilities of its sensors will make it a valuable tool for surveying extremely large black holes.

In addition, when the Lisa mission is launched, it will allow scientists to learn about such black holes through their gravitational waves.

Other scientists are developing far more detailed maps of the location, structure, motion, and size of millions of galaxies that help scientists, both observational and theoretical.

"The pace of work is amazing," says Becky Smithhurst. We have a hundred years of research on black holes, but compared to the 14 billion-year-old age of the universe, it is not enough to unravel all the mysteries. When I go out looking for a question, five more questions arise. And I have no problem with that. "

Newmeyer also agrees with Smithhurst that the shocking discoveries about black holes may raise questions that no one has asked before.

"Technological advances over the last hundred years have been astounding, making all these discoveries possible. We now know many problems that we want to solve, but we will also see new things that we have not even imagined. And I think that's a great thing. "

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