If there were other species of human beings around us ...

Tuesday, November 16, 2021

Evolution and Extinction: If only other species of humans existed around us ...

We know that there were other human-like creatures in the distant past, such as Australopithecus (one of the two-legged monkeys of this name) and Neanderthals (Stone Age man). If these species had not become extinct, would there be a human race like ours today?

This is the question of 26-year-old Anthony A. McIsack of Scotland:

We know from evolutionary science that man has existed in one form or another for about two million years or more. A man standing on two legs is a new creature more than any other group of the human race.

There were many other human species, some of which merged into one. In the case of this theory of evolution, the question then becomes inevitable: when will our (ie man's) personal existence emerge in this long story of evolution? Are chimpanzees human-like people? Are we living after australopithecines?

How do we think about rights and religion? What are the implications?

(Australopithecus refers to fossils or fossils of primitive animals found in Africa. It is estimated that they are 5 million to 10 million years old. These primitive animals walked straight and had teeth.)

Our myths often refer to a time when we became 'humans' during our evolutionary journey. Eve plucked the fruit of the tree of knowledge and gained the consciousness of good and evil. Prometheus, the god of the Greek giant Malay myth, created human beings from clay and then put them into the fire and gave them life. But in the modern story of the beginning of the human race, the story of evolution, there is no set time for creation. Instead, human beings are born slowly, from generation to generation, from the first species.

Like the process of adapting to any other complex type of situation. The wings of birds, the whistling of whales, our own fingers. Mankind has progressed step by step over millions of years. These mutations appeared in our DNA, spread throughout the population, and our ancestors gradually became something like us in this evolutionary journey, and eventually, this species evolved into a human being like us.

People are animals, but we are unlike any other animal.

We have complex languages ​​that help us to express and communicate ideas. We are creative, we understand art and music, we have the ability to make tools. Our imaginations allow us to think about worlds that once existed, we dream of worlds that still exist, and we rearrange the outside world according to these ideas.

Our social lives are built on a complex network of families, friends, and tribes, connected by a sense of responsibility towards each other. We are aware of ourselves and our universe, feeling, intelligence, consciousness, whatever you want to call this understanding or whatever you want to call it. And yet the distinction between us and other animals is artificial. Animals are more like humans than we think.

This theory is especially true of bigots.

Chimpanzees, for example, have simple gestures and verbal communication with each other. They have the ability to make raw tools. They even make weapons, and different groups have different tools. They have different cultures. Chimpanzees also have complex social lives and cooperate with each other.

As noted by the well-known scientist Charles Darwin in The Evolution of Man (The Decent of Man), the features of the ancient human era in the "present man" (Homo sapiens). Emotions, perceptions, language, tools, society, etc. are also present in other animals of some level. Yet we are different, but our differences are far less than our own.

In the past, some species were more like us than others. RD Pathex, Australopithecus, Homo erectus, and Neanderthal. Homo sapiens, the only surviving species of diverse groups of humans and anthropomorphic humans, are collectively called hominins.

This is a group of about 20 known species and perhaps dozens of still unknown species.

However, the extinction of other human beings created the impression of a vast and unfulfilled space that distinguishes species like ours from the rest of life on earth. But if these species survived, there would be very little difference between our species and other types of life. The line that now appears between man and beast is a clear and distinct dividing line, in fact, an example of the remnants of extinction.

The discovery of these endangered species is now blurring the line again and revealing the distance between us and other animals. Slowly, over thousands of years ... How did we cross. Our lineage was probably separated from the chimpanzee 6 million years ago. However, these first human beings, the people of the beginning of the human race, were hardly seen in modern times. In the first few million years, human beings evolved slowly.

The first major change in this genre was the introduction of two-step upright walking, which enabled hominins to move through open grasslands and bushes rather than forests. But if they walk like us, nothing else suggests that earlier humans became more human than chimpanzees or gorillas. There is no evidence that a species of human called Ardipithecus, originally known as Hominins, had a brain that was slightly smaller than a chimpanzee's brain, which existed 4 million years ago. Whether or not she used these types of tools.

Over the next millions of years, Australopithecus appeared (one of the now-extinct monkeys of the so-called Australopithecus two-legged species). The brain of Australopithecus was slightly larger, larger than the brain, but still smaller than the size of a guerrilla brain. He developed slightly more sophisticated tools than the manslaughter, tools such as sharp rocks, which were used to hunt animals.

Then came the human-like creature, Homo habilis. For the first time during the evolution of mankind, the brain size of the first human, the hominin, was many times larger than that of other apes. Early Stone Age tools were made during this period. The process became more complicated.

Since then, human evolution has accelerated, but the reasons for this acceleration are still unknown.

At this point in human evolution, the first humanoid, Homo erectus, appeared. Erectus was tall, like us, and they had large brains, their brains many times larger than those of a chimpanzee, and two-thirds the size of our brains.

Early man, however, made stone tools, stone hammers.

Making stone hammers was a complex process that required skill and planning. Since then, about 2 million years ago, human evolution accelerated, probably due to the use of meta-tools to make other tools, such as spears, lances, or diggers. Any tool used to make tools.

Journey to meat-eating

Homo erectus, like ours, had small teeth. This suggests that this human race may have begun its journey from eating plant-based foods to eating meat, perhaps derived from hunting meat. It seems that in this age of evolution, the journey of human evolution has begun at a rapid pace.

Large-brained Erectus soon gave birth to large-brained species.

These highly intelligent (hominins) evolved from Africa and Eurasia in the form of Neanderthals, Denisovans, Homo rhododendrons, and ancient Homo sapiens, spreading to different parts of the world. Technology has become much more advanced. The skill of making stone spears and flaming tools also appeared.

Items such as jewelry and art have also appeared in the last half a million years.

We have seen so many similarities between the structures of some of these species and their DNA that it is very surprising to us. Homo Neanderthals, Neanderthals, were approaching us in terms of brain size, and over time even larger brains began to form until the last Neanderthals began to have better brain abilities than modern humans. They may have started thinking about themselves, even calling themselves human beings.

The record of the ancient Neanderthals shows that unique human behavior was created in it, which indicates a mind similar to ours. Neanderthals were skilled hunters who knew a variety of hunting styles, ranging from rabbits to rhinos and wool giant temple animals. They made state-of-the-art tools, such as stone-pointed spears.

They made ornaments from bone shells, animal teeth, and eagle claws, and the art of cave-making began around this time. And Neanderthal's ears, like ours, had acquired the ability to hear the nuances of speech. We know that they learned to bury their dead and perhaps mourned or even mourned their dead.

There is a lot we do not know about Neanderthals, and we will probably never know. But if they were similar to us in their structure and behavior, it would be fair to assume that they could be similar to us in other respects, ways of which no trace remains. That is, they sang and danced, and that they were afraid of spirits and worshiped the gods. They pondered over the stars, told stories, laughed with friends, and loved their children.

To the extent that Neanderthals were like us, they must have been able to act with great kindness and compassion, but at the same time, they would have a cruel passion, violence, and the ability to deceive one another.

We know very little about other species, such as the Denisovans, Homo rhododendrons, and extinct sapiens, but it is reasonable to infer from their large brains and human skulls that they are also very were just like us.

I admit that it seems speculative to say one thing in detail. We have the DNA of Neanderthals, Denisovan, and other human beings. We, the human beings, have been in contact with them, and we have borne our offspring. They are raised like that. These things show how much more human they were.

It is not impossible that Homo sapiens enslaved Neanderthal women or vice versa.

But in order for the Neanderthals gene to be passed on to our offspring, we must not only have had intimate contact with them, but also successfully raised children, and these same children have grown and bred their own children. This is more likely to happen if the couple is voluntarily married. Their hybrid offspring also need to be accepted into their groups for genetic mixing.

These arguments are not only for Neanderthals, but I would also say that they may be true for the other species we have intervened in, including the Denisovans, and the unknown hominins in Africa. However, this does not mean that the conflict between the different ancient human beings of our species would have been peaceful without prejudice, or completely.

It is understandable that our own species could be responsible for the extinction of these ancient people. But there must have been times when we forgot our past differences in order to find common human values.

In the end, it feels like a tragedy that when we have replaced these other 'hominins', it must have taken a while. It took millions of years for Neanderthals, Denizens, and other species to become extinct. If the Neanderthals and the Deniswans were really stupid, ugly beasts, lacking in language or incapable of complex thinking, it would be impossible for them to successfully defeat modern humans in their capacity.

Because if they were like us, did we take their place?

It is unknown at this time what he will do after leaving the post. Maybe a spark of creativity. A way of words, tools skills, social skills. Has given us a kind of superiority over them. Whatever the difference, it was a delicate difference, or it didn't take long for us to overcome them.

How does a person develop?

So far I have not answered one important question, and it is undoubtedly the most important. This is very good and it is very good to discuss how a person develops. But first, what is a human being? How can we study and identify without explaining it? People think that there is something special that makes us fundamentally different from other animals.

For example, most people think that it is okay to sell, cook or eat a cow, but not with a butcher. It would be inhumane to do so. As a society, we accept chimpanzees and gorillas in cages, but it hurts us to do so together. Similarly, we can go to a store and buy a puppy or a kitten, but humans will not buy a kitten.

The rules are different for us and them.

We naturally consider ourselves to be a different kind on the moral and spiritual level. We can bury our dead pets, but we can't expect a dog ghost to bother us, or a cat waiting for us in heaven. But it is still difficult to find evidence of such a fundamental difference. The word 'humanity' means we care for and empathize with each other. But whether it is a common feature of mammals or a standard of theirs, is not a criterion for distinguishing or distinguishing man.

A mother cat takes care of her children, and a dog loves its owner, perhaps more than any human. Killer whales and elephants form lifelong family ties. The sea whale mourns the loss of its dead friends, and the elephants are seen returning to the remains of their dead companions.

Emotional life and relationships are not unique to us, human beings.

Maybe it's the awareness that separates us. But dogs and cats definitely know about us. They know us as individuals, just as we know them. They know how to feed us or let them out the door, or they know we've had a bad day and we need a friend. ۔ What if it is not consciousness?

Maybe it's our consciousness that sets us apart from other animals, but does it make us human? Bottle-nosed dolphins have slightly larger brains than us. The brains of elephants are three times larger than ours, the brains of marine whales are four times larger, and the brains of sperm whales are five times larger.

The size of the brain also varies in humans. Anything other than the size of the brain makes us human. Or maybe there is more going on in the minds of other animals, including extinct human beings, than we expected. We can describe human beings as diverse because of their higher intellectual abilities, for example, art, mathematics, music, and language. It creates curiosity because human beings differ from each other in how well we do all these things.

I'm less literary than Jane Austen, less musical than Taylor Swift, less clear than Martin Luther King. Am I less human in these respects? If we can't even explain the characteristic that distinguishes man, how can we really say where the so-called human-level begins, and where it ends? Or that we are unique? If we are not sure of what makes us unique, why do we insist on considering other species as inferior?

Nor is it necessary that we be the logical endpoint of human evolution.

We were one of many human beings, but we were more successful than the others. However, it is possible to imagine another evolutionary journey, a different series of mutations and historical events, which compelled the experts studying ancient Neanderthals to study our strange, swollen skulls to know that we humans What level of humanity are we in the evolutionary journey of or how many human beings we were?

The nature of evolution means that not every living thing falls into the clear category of human beings. One species gradually changes from one form to another, and each individual in a species is slightly different which makes evolutionary change possible. But this makes it difficult to define or explain human beings. We are both different from other animals because of our natural selection, but because of our common ancestry, they are the same, that is, the same and different at the same time.

And we humans are both like and opposite to each other, similar to other Homo sapiens because of their common ancestry, but different because of evolution, and because of the unique combination of genes that we have in our families or here. Even inherited from other species, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. It is difficult to classify living things into strict categories because evolution constantly changes things, it produces a variety of species and thus creates diversity in species.

And what is this diversity?

True, in some ways our species are not diverse. Homo sapiens show less genetic diversity than your average bacterial strain, showing less change in our body shape than sponge, or rose, or oak trees. But in our behavior, man is extremely diverse. We are hunters, farmers, mathematicians, soldiers, explorers, carpenters, criminals, artists.

There are many different ways of being human, there are many different aspects of the human condition, and each of us has to find a definition of that and discover what it means to be human.

Ironically, this inability to explain humanity is one of our human characteristics.

* Nicholas Langrish is a Senior Lecturer in Paleontology and Evolutionary Biology at Bath University.

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