One evening in the spring of 1905, Albert Einstein, then a patent clerk in Bern, after getting through his day's work decided to take a tram on his way home Einstein often wrapped up work as quickly as possible thinking about the facts of the universe in his spare time.

One such thought experiment was which he devised on a tram that forever revolutionized modern physics as Einstein retracts his Zytglogge clock tower, what would happen if a tram receded at the speed of light Realized that if to travel at 186,000 miles per second the hour hand seemed to freeze completely at the same time, he knew Einstein states that in the clock tower, the hands were running at a natural pace because Einstein's time slowed down.

This thought blew his mind. Einstein concluded that the faster you move through space, the slower you move over time.

# How is this possible?

Einstein's work was heavily influenced by two of the most famous physicists of all time First, there were the laws of motion discovered by the idol Isaac Newton and the second the laws of electromagnetism developed by

**James Clerk Maxwell Newton's laws**insisted that velocities are never absolute but always relative, so that their volumes should be appended to the phrase**“with respect to”**For example, a train travels at 40 km/hwith respect to a person at rest however, it only travels 20 km/h with respect to a train traveling 20 km/h in the same direction or traveling 60 km/ hour with respect to another train traveling in the opposite direction at 20 km/h This also applies to the speeds of the Earth, the Sun and all the Milky Way Galaxy, On the other hand, Maxwell found that the speed of an electromagnetic wave like light is constant at an exorbitant 299,792,458 m/s Regardless of who is observing them, however, Maxwell's idea seems incompatible with Newton's idea of relative velocities if Ne ton's laws are truly universal.

## Why should the speed of life be an exception?

This Einstein presented a daunting dilemma This conflict between Newton and Maxwell's ideas can be demonstrated by Einstein's remarkable thought experiments. At the same time, however, things get more complicated when someone on a passing train watches this event as Einstein beats the speed of light If the speed of light matches the rules of relativity, the person on the train wouldn't watch the lightning strike all at once.

**Closest to the man on the train first**The measurement of the speed of light made by the two men may differ in size, and this contradicts an obvious intrinsic truth of the universe. Einstein had to make a difficult choice. Either Newton's laws were incomplete or the speed of light was not constant Einstein realized that the two concepts could coexist with a small tweak in Newton's laws To eliminate the discrepancy in measurements.

**Einstein**suggested at the same time the man on the train should slow down to make up for the decrease in speed so that the volume remains constant. Einstein on this absurd "time dilation" and his newly discovered theory of

**"special relativity"**Newton believed that time moves tirelessly in one direction forward. That the two were identical together formed a three-dimensional fabric or continuum called space-time in which the mundane events of the universe unfolded.

**Einstein suggested that bodies**as massive as the Sun did not pull bodies like the Earth in the mysteriously inexplicable tug, but curved the fabric of space around them forcing the Earth to fall into This steep canyon A very simplified analogy is the drop on a trampoline made of a falling bowling ball If a marble is placed on the trampoline, the marble will roll on a thousand Move towards the bowling ball in the middle This is also true for the Earth's gravity.

We are fixed to the ground because the area distorted by the mass of the Earth pushes us down from the top but the slack in the fabric around the Earth is not uniform and the Earth's gravitational force increases as we move towards its center where the curvature is at the limit So, like a marble on a trampoline, an object falling toward the Earth accelerating as it goes toward the center of the planet falls faster when it's directly above the surface than it says

when it's a little higher than the atmosphere but hey according to special relativity, the faster it moves the slower it goes Movement over time.

**This means that time passes**more slowly on the surface of the Earth than in the atmosphere now because different planets have different masses and therefore the force of gravity is different and they also accelerate objects at different rates where we learned that this means the passage of time changing this is what happens in the movie Interstellar when it lands The movie's protagonists are on a planet close to a black hole.

**The gravity of the planet is so intense that**one hour on the surface is equivalent to seven years on Earth To understand how movement affects time, let's consider the simplest mechanism To keep time, a second pass every time a photon is reflected. Let's imagine two people, one in a spaceship a little higher than the Earth's atmosphere and the other on top of a small hill just above the surface of the Earth. Both watch a man fall from space toward Earth.

Let's say the man who falls carries a photon watch. A moment ago what do the two men notice as the man falls behind them? What they notice is eerily similar to what a stationary person observes when watching a bouncing ball on a moving train. When a man falls from space, it seems that the light in his watch moves in triangles to the observers.

**This means that the light travels a longer distance**and therefore the duration of the second extends. It is clear that the length of the triangles of light traces and therefore the duration of the second is proportional to the speed of the fall of the man when we remember that objects close to the center of The planet are falling faster. We can tell the time that it seems to pass slower to the man on the hill than it does to the man in the spaceship above.

Of course, the difference is infinite. The difference between the time measured by clocks at the tops of mountains and on the surface of the Earth is a matter of nanoseconds. Time dilation effects every clock whether it depends on fundamental electromagnetism or a complex combination of electromagnetism and Newton's laws of motion. In fact, biological processes are slowed down Yes, that's right, your head is a little bigger than your feet.

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